Mesopotamia was the habitat between two rivers and the Mesopotamian people were getting their needs to survive, essentially food supply and water from these rivers. Since the urbanization and agriculture were related; the cultivation of the land leads the formation of settlements. Mesopotamian cities obtained through rivers, canals, and the extremely fertile lands. They used clay in their buildings cause of its availability, strength and water-resistance. One of the most interesting things about them is their construction strategy. They never rebuild, the new buildings rose on the top of the old ones, making use of the previous levels as foundation. Another strategy they followed was honoring their gods with their architecture. For this case they wanted to be as mush as close to their god; so they created stairways to heaven a.k.a Ziggurats.
Egyptians were another civilization that settled according to a river. The River Nile supplied the essential wealth of the land.We can sense their beliefs’ reflection on their approach to the architecture. The Egyptian people believed afterlife and they putted their deaths into the magnificent stone tombs.This obsession brings us the most permanent volumes ever constructed, such as pyramids. Their material preferences can be related with durability and value. Mud brick was principal and local material for houses whereas, the stone was preferred for temples and tombs.
The Indus civilization were located near the Indus-Saraswati River. Harappans built thick urban walls which they also used for water storage, drainage system, well planed sewage system rather than monuments or giant pyramids. What is new than the other two cultures is that they used brick as a material for construction. Likewise, they used geometry in the city planning, they built cities in an orthogonal order, they had a meticulous road plan with rectangular buildings.