The leaders of Italian merchant republics who educated their young as humanists, exposing them to ancient Greek and Latin sources of history, science, philosophy, art and poetry had an important role on the Renaissance. Consequently a tendency to the Greco-Roman architecture occurred. Although they practiced on the old principles, the artists and architects didn’t replicate antiquity. They were willing to discover the underlying principles of design in order to improve their works. Renaissance architecture were characterized by harmonious form, mathematical proportion and a unit of measurement that base on human scale. under the influence of classicism
In Late fourteenth-century rounded arches, symmetrically placed bays, and harmonious proportions used in Florence. The emergence of perspective vision participated the development of the principal pub and this is a new way of seeing treating buildings as freestanding objects in proportional space.
Filippo Brunelleschi was known as the first Renaissance architect. The system of the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore was one of his achievements in architecture .Many structures in the city were reconstructed following that. He was also first since antiquity to use the classical orders ” Doric, Ionic, Corinthiam ” in a consistant and appropriate manner. Although Brunelleschi’s structures looks simple, there were an underlying system of proportion. He used an unit of measurement whose repetition throughout the building created an harmony.
In Renaisance period, harmonious proportions and classical details was developed by Leon Battista Alberti. He was famous for his treatise on architecture. Patrons showed their virtue and achieved fame by sponsoring appropriate according to Alberti’s treatise. For Alberti, architecture was not merely means of constructing buildings, it was a way to create meaning. Most of people thinks that the mausoleum he created and inspired by Holly Sepulchre, is greater than the original one.
Composing the views of the cities in a harmonious way is a new approach for Renaissance period in Italy. Placing the constructions like palaces or baptisteries in a homogeneous way to the gridded piazza served this idea.
In the Russia there were a process to transition from log houses to onion dome. After the Mongolian invasion the onion shaped dome became the character of Russian architecture. The Church of the Tithe Kiev was the first stone construction of that region. It was influenced from Byzantine churches and this central plan is the cross shape within a square served for Ukrainian and fission churches served for many centuries.